Longido, Monduli and Ngorongoro are among the seven district councils of Arusha Region. Livestock keeping is the main predominant economic activity in all these three districts, which if properly managed, could contribute significantly to the district economy.
Longido District was created in 2007 from part of Monduli District. The District has an area 7,782 sq. km and is situated between Latitude 2.20 and 3.10 South of the Equator and Longitude 36.00 and 37.30 East of Greenwich. The Districts that border it include Meru and Rombo District Councils to the East, Ngorongoro to the West, Monduli and Arusha Districts to the South and Siha District Council to the South East. To the North lies the Republic of Kenya.
Longido is divided into 3 divisions namely; Longido, Ketumbeine and Enduimet, 16 Wards, 41 Villages and 136 sub-villages. 7 wards out of 16 and 9 villages were added in 2010.
The population in Longido District according to the 2012 National Census is 123,153 of which 60,199 are male and 62,954 are female. Average household size is 4.5. The main economic activities of Longido are livestock keeping and wildlife tourism. More than 90 per cent of the population is engaged in livestock keeping hence the main predominant economic activity. Large-scale farming is practiced in the North Eastern part of the District; subsistence farming is the main form of farming.
Longido district is recorded as one of the driest areas in Tanzania, the temperature ranges from 20C – 35C. Rainfall ranges from less than 500mm in low lands to 900mm in high altitude. From year 2007 the District experienced prolonged dry season.
Traditional, pastoralist Maasai community predominantly occupies Longido. The lives of the pastoralist Maasai depend on the quality and quantity of their livestock and its products, which in turn are dependent on the availability of pasture, water and livestock health. Both water and natural pasture can frequently be insufficient, especially during drought periods.
Monduli District Council was established during the British colonial rule; the administrative area was named “Monduli Maasai District” which included the present Kiteto, Simanjiro, Ngorongoro and Longido districts. Monduli District has an area of 6,419 sq. km and is situated between latitudes 3.00” to 4.50’ South of the Equator and Longitudes 36.50’ to 36.45’ East of Greenwich Meridian. The districts that border it include Arumeru Districts to the East, Ngorongoro and Karatu Districts to the West, Mbulu and Babati to the South and Simanjiro District to the Southeast and Longido district to the North.
The District is divided into three divisions of Manyara, Makuyuni and Kisongo, 15 Wards and 48 Villages. In the population census of 2012 the district recorded 158,929; the growth rate is 3.9 compared with 2.7 for Arusha region and the national rate of 2.7.
The major ethnic group is the Maasai and constitutes about 40 per cent of the population and their main activity is livestock keeping. The second ethnic group is the Waarusha constituting of about 20 per cent of the population and their main activities are livestock keeping and farming. The rest who are not indigenous of Monduli District constitute 40 per cent and their main activities are farming and trading.
The main economic activities of Monduli District are livestock keeping, agriculture production and wildlife tourism. More than 90 per cent of the population is engaged in livestock keeping and agriculture.
Ngorongoro district council started in the late years of 18th century by the German as an administrative division. Ngorongoro district Council covers an area of 14,036 Sq. km and is composed of plains with small – scattered hills. It lies between Latitude 3030′ South of Equator and 350 5425′ East of Greenwich. Moreover, the area of Ngorongoro district is a slope, which slowly falls down towards rift valley.
The district has – 3 Divisions, 21 Wards, 56 Village, 154 hamlets, one town and one Constituency. As per 2012 census population is 174,278 (male 82,610, Female 91,668) with annual population growth rate 4.8 per cent and population density of 12.4
The District is characterized by tropical climate whereby some areas (Sale division) are hot and dry while other areas receive high rainfall, which varies between 400mm and 600mm. The Southern part of the district is famous of Ngorongoro Conservation Areas under the control of Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA).